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Trade refers to the economic activity of purchase and resale of goods and services, particularly in the purchase for resale at a profit or benefit.

Trade has its own laws which are collected in the Commercial Code and its own national or international courts. Having purposes other than to make a profit, many economic or professional activities such as education, police, culture, medicine, law, architecture, religion, etc. fall outside the field of trade, but of laws and civil and administrative courts. With powerful opinion leaders, the World Trade Organization seeks to expand its competence and profitability principles on all non-commercial activities by challenging their right to have laws and selfless values.

The result of increasing specialization movement that affects human societies:

  • technical division of labor at the level of workstations;
  • sociological division of labor at the level of individuals or groups of individuals;
  • international division of labor at the level of territories and / or countries.

The development of these specializations is why - in return - the exchanges and transactions have increased: between individuals, between organizations or between individuals and organizations (associations or companies) on the same or between regions / countries.

Trade is the natural continuation of the activity of producing goods and services who can find an outlet in the marketing towards potentially interested markets and customers.

By extension, the term - trade - is used in French to designate the place of practice or organization in which participants of this activity practice their craft.

Business and Law

From a legal perspective, trade is any act considered commercial by law. So is shopping in commercial law (commercial code) any person who professes acts classified as commercial by law; These actions depend on each nation.

In France, for there to be commercial act in the legal sense, it is necessary that at least one party called "merchant" exercises usually the activity of purchase and resale. Consequently, when an individual sells his used car to another, it is a matter of civil law, not commercial law.

While finalizing a transaction resulting in a transfer of responsibility of the seller to the buyer.

Business and Economy

The trade is driven satisfaction multiple human needs. The knowledge, physical strength and the time available to it do not allow it to produce only what they need to live. The solution is for him to organize and divide the work: either one hand it can produce and also to exchange what they produce against what it needs and it does not produce himself.

The exchange of goods naturally implies transport: sea, land, air. Each of these modes of advantages and limitations in terms of time, cost and risk.

upstream storage shipment and distribution downstream complement transport operations within all logistics operations.

Insurance, meanwhile, provides financial solutions for the protection of goods during these routing operations where the risk of accidental damage, loss or theft exist.

Trade, sales and management

The methods, organizations and business performance are improvable:
marketing provides methods for the analysis of the target and general guidelines locating and framing the marketing effort (marketing mix, digital broadcasting, Broadcast value ...)
reflection on the distribution policy seeks to decisions regarding distribution channels and relationships with professional intermediaries involved in product distribution
merchandising provides guidance to optimize the performance of outlets (from the general layout of store until the staging of each linear)
Finally the quality of the trade can not simply ignore the skills to selling or trading business.

international and domestic trade Trade

Across the nation:
The trade balance is the representation of trade nationally. This trade is negotiated between nations through the World Trade Organization. Fair Trade can be considered.

Across the organization:
International trade is specific in the law (intellectual property ...) and management. In France, Chambers of commerce can provide a lot of information about it.

Trade and waste

trade companies and trading have a responsibility in the production, recovery, movement of waste (including packaging and overpack) directly or indirectly generated by their activities, the circular economy and eco-design, seeking to make it more " sustainable), especially for the packaging industry (paper, glass, metals ..), electronics, household products and trading of materials. under the polluter pays principle tax systems and green taxes help finance sectors collecting / recycling.

In France, according to the Environmental Code, to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill and legal or illegal in the context of a circular economy better recycling waste it generates, and application of European law (as for electrical and electronic waste), decree No  2016-288 of 10 March 2016 specifies materials distributors' obligations in terms of recovery and waste management; it shall enter into force on 1 January 2017. "any distributor of materials, products and professionals destination construction equipment, which operates a distribution unit, whose area is greater than or equal to 400 square meters and whose sales annual or above 1 million euros " must prepare resume and manage waste from the same types of materials, products and construction equipment it distributes. This decree is also in the devices of "adaptation and simplification in the field of prevention and waste management" and law enforcement on the energy transition, but does not apply to DIY stores. According to the decree "This recovery is performed on the distribution unit or within a maximum radius of ten kilometers. If the recovery is carried out of the distribution unit, and a visible display on its website when it exists, informs producers or holders of waste to the address location of the place recovery of waste. " Trading sector representatives materials (FNBM CGI) consider the time (2017) too short.

Fair Trade

Fair trade ( fair trade ) which develops from the late twentieth  century, introduces ethical, fair and responsible trade, and a new relationship between the buyer and the producer, that this approach must be properly paid for his work.

Source : Wikipedia
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